VJ Day

 August 15 is the anniversary of the end of the Pacific War in Japan. It is the day when the Emperor told people about the Potsdam Declaration acceptance of Japan by broadcast exactly. In addition, Japan introduced the acceptance of the declaration into the allied powers side on August 14 . The official sealing was carried out at a deck of American battleship Missouri in port Tokyo bay on September 2. (VJ DAY)742px-Missouri-flyover.jpg
The end of the war work of Japan was always carried out. If the acceptance of Potsdam Declaration had been early another 10 days, the atom bomb throwing down to Hiroshima and Nagasaki would have been prevented, and, without participation in a war of the Soviet Union, there could not be the issue of Soviet Union detained person. I think that this should save the human life of at least 400,000 people including a citizen. And the issue of Northern Territories which spread out today would be different .The influence of the Soviet Union in the Far East is suppressed than the present and no one know how even the Korean War and the Vietnam War turned out. In the process until the end of the WW II,  the history must be studied assuming the world map having been changed. It is the first thing that Japan accepts defeat formally in history. Since they take national life and death, the decision and the process will be the most important Japanese history. I try to look back on the process here. I want to consider a process until the end of the war through Yalta Conference (Yalta secret agreement) that decided participation in the Pacific war of the Soviet Union, Potsdam Declaration that decided the Japanese terms of capitulation, the end of the war work of the last Japanese side.

Yalta Conference
The Yalta Conference held February 4–11, 1945, was the WWII meeting of the heads of government of the United States, theUnited Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and General Secretary Joseph Stalin, respectively, for the purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization. The conference convened in the Livadia Palace near Yalta, in Crimea.
Yalta secret agreement
Roosevelt wanted the USSR to enter the Pacific War with the Allies. One Soviet precondition for a declaration of war against Japan was an American recognition of Mongolian independence from China, and a recognition of Soviet interests in the Manchurian railways and Port Arthur; these were agreed without Chinese representation or consent. Stalin agreed that the Soviet Union would enter the Pacific War three months after the defeat of Germany. Delivering a thing, the Chishima Islands which return the Karafuto (Sakhalin) southern part to the Soviet Union to the Soviet Union , Delivering the Kurile Islands to the Soviet Union . This secret agreement does not get the consent of China.President Eisenhower denies the national participation of the United States in this secret agreement after the war.

The Potsdam Declaration
The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender is a statement that called for the Surrender of the Empire of Japan during WWII. On July 26, 1945, United States President Harry S. Truman, United Kingdom Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Chairman of the Nationalist Government of China Chiang Kai-shek issued the document, which outlined the terms of surrender for the Empire of Japan as agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference. This ultimatum stated that, if Japan did not surrender, it would face "prompt and utter destruction" although the document did not make any mention of atomic weapons.
1. We-the President of the United States, the President of the National Government of the Republic of China, and the Prime Minister of Great Britain, representing the hundreds of millions of our countrymen, have conferred and agree that Japan shall be given an opportunity to end this war.
2. The prodigious land, sea and air forces of the United States, the British Empire and of China, many times reinforced by their armies and air fleets from the west, are poised to strike the final blows upon Japan. This military power is sustained and inspired by the determination of all the Allied Nations to prosecute the war against Japan until she ceases to resist.
3. The result of the futile and senseless German resistance to the might of the aroused free peoples of the world stands forth in awful clarity as an example to the people of Japan. The might that now converges on Japan is immeasurably greater than that which, when applied to the resisting Nazis, necessarily laid waste to the lands, the industry and the method of life of the whole German people. The full application of our military power, backed by our resolve, will mean the inevitable and complete destruction of the Japanese armed forces and just as inevitably the utter devastation of the Japanese homeland.
4. The time has come for Japan to decide whether she will continue to be controlled by those self-willed militaristic advisers whose unintelligent calculations have brought the Empire of Japan to the threshold of annihilation, or whether she will follow the path of reason.
5. Following are our terms. We will not deviate from them. There are no alternatives. We shall brook no delay.
6. There must be eliminated for all time the authority and influence of those who have deceived and misled the people of Japan into embarking on world conquest, for we insist that a new order of peace, security and justice will be impossible until irresponsible militarism is driven from the world.
7. Until such a new order is established and until there is convincing proof that Japan's war-making power is destroyed, points in Japanese territory to be designated by the Allies shall be occupied to secure the achievement of the basic objectives we are here setting forth.
8. The terms of the Cairo Declaration shall be carried out and Japanese sovereignty shall be limited to the islands of Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, Shikoku and such minor islands as we determine.
9. The Japanese military forces, after being completely disarmed, shall be permitted to return to their homes with the opportunity to lead peaceful and productive lives.
10. We do not intend that the Japanese shall be enslaved as a race or destroyed as a nation, but stern justice shall be meted out to all war criminals, including those who have visited cruelties upon our prisoners. The Japanese Government shall remove all obstacles to the revival and strengthening of democratic tendencies among the Japanese people. Freedom of speech, of religion, and of thought, as well as respect for the fundamental human rights shall be established.
11. Japan shall be permitted to maintain such industries as will sustain her economy and permit the exaction of just reparations in kind, but not those which would enable her to re-arm for war. To this end, access to, as distinguished from control of, raw materials shall be permitted. Eventual Japanese participation in world trade relations shall be permitted.
12. The occupying forces of the Allies shall be withdrawn from Japan as soon as these objectives have been accomplished and there has been established in accordance with the freely expressed will of the Japanese people a peacefully inclined and responsible government.
13. We call upon the government of Japan to proclaim now the unconditional surrender of all Japanese armed forces, and to provide proper and adequate assurances of their good faith in such action. The alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction.
Imperial decision
The Supreme Council met at 10:30. Suzuki, who had just come from a meeting with the emperor, said it was impossible to continue the war. Tōgō Shigenori said that they could accept the terms of the Potsdam Declaration but needed a guarantee of the emperor's position. Navy Minister Yonai said that they had to make some diplomatic proposal−they could no longer afford to wait for better circumstances.


In the middle of the meeting, shortly after 11:00, news arrived that Nagasaki, on the west coast of Kyūshū, had been hit by a second atomic bomb (called "Fat Man" by the United States). By the time the meeting ended, the Big Six had split 3–3. Suzuki, Tōgō, and Admiral Yonai favored Tōgō's one additional condition to Potsdam, while Generals Anami, Umezu, and Admiral Toyoda insisted on three further terms that modified Potsdam: that Japan handle their own disarmament, that Japan deal with any Japanese war criminals, and that there be no occupation of Japan. 
 The full cabinet met on 14:30 on August 9, and spent most of the day debating surrender. As the Big Six had done, the cabinet split, with neither Tōgō's position nor Anami's attracting a majority. The cabinet meeting adjourned at 17:30 with no consensus. A second meeting lasting from 18:00 to 22:00 also ended with no consensus. Following this second meeting, Suzuki and Tōgō met the emperor, and Suzuki proposed an impromptu Imperial conference, which started just before midnight on the night of August 9–10. Suzuki presented Anami's four-condition proposal as the consensus position of the Supreme Council. The cabinet debated, but again no consensus emerged. At around 02:00 (August 10), Suzuki finally addressed Emperor Hirohito, asking him to decide between the two positions. The participants later recollected that the emperor stated:

 I have given serious thought to the situation prevailing at home and abroad and have concluded that continuing the war can only mean destruction for the nation and prolongation of bloodshed and cruelty in the world. I cannot bear to see my innocent people suffer any longer. ...
I was told by those advocating a continuation of hostilities that by June new divisions would be in place in fortified positions [east of Tokyo] ready for the invader when he sought to land. It is now August and the fortifications still have not been completed. ...
There are those who say the key to national survival lies in a decisive battle in the homeland. The experiences of the past, however, show that there has always been a discrepancy between plans and performance. I do not believe that the discrepancy in the case of Kujukuri can be rectified. Since this is also the shape of things, how can we repel the invaders? [He then made some specific reference to the increased destructiveness of the atomic bomb]
It goes without saying that it is unbearable for me to see the brave and loyal fighting men of Japan disarmed. It is equally unbearable that others who have rendered me devoted service should now be punished as instigators of the war. Nevertheless, the time has come to bear the unbearable. ...
I swallow my tears and give my sanction to the proposal to accept the Allied proclamation on the basis outlined by the Foreign Minister.

The talk of the Emperor continued more than 30 minutes, and the meeting room was filled with sobbing of very important people.  It was sent that I accepted it saying that it was included in Switzerland, Sweden that "Imperial power of the Emperor was not changed" to Potsdam Declaration on the same day.  In contrast, there was an answer from American Secretary of State Burns. From the moment of surrender the authority of the Emperor and the Japanese government to rule the state shall be subject to the Supreme Commander of the Allied powers who will take such steps as he deems proper to effectuate the surrender terms. ...The ultimate form of government of Japan shall, in accordance with the Potsdam Declaration, be established by the freely expressed will of the Japanese people. The meeting became complicated again.
Second Imperial decision of the August 14 fell, and the book side conveyed what declaration accepted in the allied powers side on the same day on this condition implication day.

My consideration
It meant next to lose war, the Japanese has been taught.
The country was occupied by the other countries, and the Emperor and the war crime are executed , and the government and the armed forces are broken up, and a man is execution or a slave, a woman is slave (sex slave) .Judging from the present when I have known the postwar rule in the United States, this thought seems to be warped. But I think that it is not necessarily wrong when I think about the history that a then imperialism nation did in the cover colony race. Therefore the thought to be mainland decisive battle in a bamboo spear is absurd. For a situation that a Japanese nation disappears, I think that it arrests you with the history that is greatest as the Japanese who postwar, lives to know what kind of process the world arrived at "the end of the war" by and should consider this.
 By the Yalta Conference, I want to pay attention to tactics of the cold war between the East and the West that has already begun .Roosevelt who was afraid that an American soldier was worn out further pressed Stalin for participation in a war to Japan. Stalin welcomed this suggestion that the Soviet Union takes the territory which robbed of by Russo-Japanese War back, and the Soviet Union can go into the Far East.This secret agreement does not get the consent of China.President Eisenhower denies the national participation of the United States in this secret agreement after the war. The Soviet Union invaded Manchurian exactly three months after surrender in Germany. The Japan and Russia neutrality pact was broken substantially. 
 The declaration of the war said...The demand of the three powers, the United States, Great Britain and China, on July 26 for the unconditional surrender of the Japanese armed forces was rejected by Japan, and thus the proposal of the Japanese Government to the Soviet Union on mediation in the war in the Far East loses all basis....
And the Soviet Union continued military aggression for the Japan forces disarming until they went ahead through the military after the Potsdam Declaration acceptance of August 15 in Japan and finished the effective control of the objective territory and continued this until the declaration sealing on September 2. (the example that fought in superiority includes Japanese military including the fight of Shumshu)
The Soviet Union occupies Kunashiri, Etorofu and ceases fire by protest of the United States on September 5. Through this Soviet Union, the lowness of the ability for grasp of the international situation of the Japan side which regarded the pacification with U.S. and Britain as Emperor system of Japan maintenance is just disgusted.
 While the army and navy already obtained the information of three Soviet Union, Japan was not able to keep it alive. In the situation called the Japanese national life and death, they gave priority to the interest of one's organization. These points appear in Fukushima nuclear plant accident and bureaucratism, current Japan including the disgraceful affair of the company.

Potsdam Declaration is given notice of on July 26, and float by an atom bomb attack on 9th on August 6 saying that Japan performed refusal (MOKUSATU) of it, and is the same; on 9th the Soviet Union to Japan; participate.
I try to look back on two weeks such as this nightmare.After having heard news of the atom bomb experiment success in Los Alamos, Truman orders atom bomb attacks from Potsdam to Japan on July 25. This is before announcement of Potsdam Declaration.
He has already intercepted a code telegraphic message of Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He knew that Japan did not intend to accept an unconditional surrender. The defeat of Japan was already clear militarily, and there was not already the military meaning to make a city attack by an atom bomb. It was an atom bomb throwing down judgment that he pushed the objection of the aide including Eisenhower aside including scientists who developed an atom bomb. In addition, even MacArthur of the Commander in chief is not informed of the atom bomb throwing down judgment. He flew into a rage with news of the atom bomb throwing down.
He show the power of the atom bomb which was spent a large amount of tax and developed to the world, and Truman drops an atom bomb before it is participated in the war by the Soviet Union, and it is thought that he wanted to put Japan under the control of the United States. (there is the opinion that it is said that a part had the racialism for the yellow-skinned races. As for the atom bomb throwing down, there is the opinion that was experiment on a human body;).The Soviet Union starts participation in a war out of greed for territory rule. When Japan wants to gain "only the maintenance of the Emperor system of Japan" somehow or other, Japan show disapproval of an unconditional surrender.

It cannot have "the fight for justice" to think whenever I look back on the history of the war, and "the winner talks about justice". According to words that "the history is written by the winner", Tokyo trial is performed in the one-sided logic of the winner after this, and the execution of the war crime is performed.  And the postwar history education to continue is provided based on this Tokyo trial sense of history today. There are most of causes of the issue of history recognition and the territorial problem between recent Korea and Chinese Russia here. The history recognition of the process following day and that of end of the war is an important contemporary problem with the influence in this sense in the future. The mystery of most seems to be still unexploited for a process until the end of WWU. United States has been the only supar power large country in the world, even which can make war on anyone, anywhere, anytime and any reason. However, I have to say that the winning a war and the justice are different things!

posted by Kogame3 at 05:18| Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | 歴史認識


American Journey / Memphis

My young daughter came over to Memphis as a short-term exchange student.I decided to go to meet her with much effort.However, it is the same United States, but it takes approximately six hours by air from San Jose to Memphis.

Memphis is the town where prospered as a center of the cotton growing in the east bank of the Mississippi.


Mississipi is the inland river which is 400 miles to the Gulf of Mexico,  I was surprised at this overwhelming quantity of water.


Memphis is famous as the town where Elvis Presley was born. The rotation of the house where Elvis was born is made a sightseeing spot and is called Grace land.


Fortunately, I happened to meet an annual event this week.


I went to watch a karaoke competition fully supported by the town.


I knew that there was many Elvis in this town.


There was feminin Elvis too. She sang it emotionally more than 30 minutes.


I think whether this person was professional. It was just Elvis on stage! The former Elvis fan gave a shrill voice. They are women beyond 70 years old.


I entered the rock'n roll cafe where let me feel the 50s.

There is Blanchard Springs Caverns in Ozark National Forest of Arkansas. It takes approximately four hours by car from Memphis.It is valuable place even if I spend the time only for it. There is an elevator following the stalactite cave of the bottom of the earth in this building. My body was covered to Wet and coolly air when I arrive at the bottom of the earth.It is finally a beginning of bottom of the earth exploration.


Blanchard Springs Caverns can hardly be described in words! It is difficult for even a photograph to express this strange, beautiful space.Strange-shaped stalactite fills up the big space.And I walked the sidewalk maintained well between the stalactite. The first room is called The Cathedral Room.


Huge jellyfish.


The length of the sidewalk is half mile, but takes one hour or more to enjoy the view.


It is artistic molding


The battleship which nature formed.


The second room is called Coral Room.I felt some religious brightness in the beauty.


Participants of the tour hear the explanation of the member of explanation eagerly in spots.There were a lot of specialized questions.


I will not forget this strange, beautiful scene throughout the life.


The water which gushes out of the crack of the rock in large quantities. Here is a place called Blanchard Spring.This water is groundwater coming out of the stalactite cave.


I visited the Memphis University where my daughter studied in.On the large site, space harmonizes with many buildings and directs a place of the research of the truth.


The color of the building is solid and lines up orderly.


John S. Wilder Tower becomes the symbol of the university.


In both the old building and the new building, images of the appearance are unified. I understand that the concept of the building has been followed for many years.It is a point to want the Japanese university to follow it.


Is the tiger called Tom the mascot of this university? TOM was in the at every turn of the campus.

posted by Kogame3 at 11:19| Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | 日記



 8月15日は 太平洋戦争における日本の終戦記念日だ。正確には、天皇の玉音放送により、日本のポツダム宣言受諾が内外に発せられた日である。また 連合国側への宣言受託の知らせは、8月14日に日本から発信されている。正式な、受諾の調印は9月2日、アメリカ戦艦ミズーリ号の甲板で行われている。(VJ-DAY)
 日本の終戦工作は、もっと前から行われており、ポツダム宣言の受諾がもう10日早ければ、広島 長崎への原爆投下は防げていたし、ソ連の参戦それに続くソ連抑留者問題もなかったはずだ。少なくともこのことにより、一般市民をふくむ40万人以上の命が救われているはずと想定できる。そして今日もつづく北方領土問題も違ったものであっただろう。極東におけるソ連の影響力は、現在よりも抑えられ、朝鮮戦争やベトナム戦争さえもどうなっていたかわからない。このように考えると、この終戦記念日とその日までの過程は、その後の世界地図が変わっていたかもしれないということを念頭において考証されなければならない。
 歴史上 公式に日本が敗北を認めるということは、初めてのことである。国家の存亡がかかっている以上、その判断とプロセスは最も大切な日本の歴史であろう。ここで その過程を振り返ってみる。ソ連の参戦を決めたヤルタ会談(ヤルタ密約)、日本の降伏条件を決めたポツダム宣言、この間の日本側の終戦工作を通して終戦までのプロセスを考察してみたい。

ヤルタ会談(Yalta Conference)は、1945年2月4日〜11日に旧ソ連のクリミア半島のヤルタ近郊で行われたアメリカ、イギリス、ソビエト連邦による首脳会談。第二次世界大戦が佳境に入る中、ソ連対日参戦、国際連合の設立について協議されたほか、ドイツおよび中部・東部ヨーロッパにおける米ソの利害を調整することで大戦後の国際秩序を規定し、東西冷戦の端緒ともなった。
主に日本に関して、アメリカのルーズベルト、ソ連のスターリン、およびイギリスのチャーチルとの間で交わされた秘密協定。1944年12月14日にスターリンはアメリカの駐ソ大使W・アヴェレル・ハリマンに対して樺太(サハリン)南部や千島列島などの領有を要求しており、ルーズベルトはこれらの要求に応じる形で日ソ中立条約の一方的破棄、すなわちソ連の対日参戦を促した。ヤルタ会談ではこれが秘密協定としてまとめられた 。この協定では、ソ連の強い影響下にあったに、

ポツダム宣言( The Potsdam Declaration)は、1945年(昭和20年)7月26日にアメリカ合衆国大統領、イギリス首相、中華民国主席の名において大日本帝国(日本)に対して発された、「全日本軍の無条件降伏」等を求めた全13か条から成る宣言。文書では原子爆弾には言及していないが、日本が降伏しないならば、「迅速で完全な破壊」に向かうであろう。と警告している。
(1) われわれ、米合衆国大統領、中華民国主席及び英国本国政府首相は、われわれ数億の民を代表して協議し、この戦争終結の機会を日本に与えるものとすることで意見の一致を見た。
(2) 米国、英帝国及び中国の陸海空軍は、西方から陸軍及び航空編隊による数層倍の増強を受けて巨大となっており、日本に対して最後の一撃を加える体制が整っている。(poised to strike the final blows)
(3) 世界の自由なる人民が立ち上がった力に対するドイツの無益かつ無意味な抵抗の結果は、日本の人民に対しては、極めて明晰な実例として前もって示されている。現在日本に向かって集中しつつある力は、ナチスの抵抗に対して用いられた力、すなわち全ドイツ人民の生活、産業、国土を灰燼に帰せしめるに必要だった力に較べてはかりしれぬほどに大きい。われわれの決意に支えられたわれわれの軍事力を全て用いれば、不可避的かつ完全に日本の軍事力を壊滅させ、そしてそれは不可避的に日本の国土の徹底的な荒廃を招来することになる。
(4) 日本帝国を破滅の淵に引きずりこむ非知性的な計略を持ちかつ身勝手な軍国主義的助言者に支配される状態を続けるか、あるいは日本が道理の道に従って歩むのか、その決断の時はもう来ている。
(5) これより以下はわれわれの条件である。条件からの逸脱はないものする。代替条件はないものする。遅延は一切認めないものとする。
(6) 日本の人民を欺きかつ誤らせ世界征服に赴かせた、全ての時期における影響勢力及び権威・権力は排除されなければならない。従ってわれわれは、世界から無責任な軍国主義が駆逐されるまでは、平和、安全、正義の新秩序は実現不可能であると主張するものである。
(7) そのような新秩序が確立せらるまで、また日本における好戦勢力が壊滅したと明確に証明できるまで、連合国軍が指定する日本領土内の諸地点は、当初の基本的目的の達成を担保するため、連合国軍がこれを占領するものとする。
(8) カイロ宣言の条項は履行さるべきものとし、日本の主権は本州、北海道、九州、四国及びわれわれの決定する周辺小諸島に限定するものとする。
(9) 日本の軍隊は、完全な武装解除後、平和で生産的な生活を営む機会と共に帰還を許されるものする。
(10) われわれは、日本を人種として奴隷化するつもりもなければ国民として絶滅させるつもりもない。しかし、われわれの捕虜を虐待したものを含めて、すべての戦争犯罪人に対しては断固たる正義を付与するものである。日本政府は、日本の人民の間に民主主義的風潮を強化しあるいは復活するにあたって障害となるものはこれを排除するものとする。言論、宗教、思想の自由及び基本的人権の尊重はこれを確立するものとする。
(11) 日本はその産業の維持を許されるものとする。そして経済を持続するものとし、もって戦争賠償の取り立てにあつべきものとする。この目的のため、その支配とは区別する原材料の入手はこれを許される。世界貿易取引関係への日本の事実上の参加はこれを許すものとする。
(12) 連合国占領軍は、その目的達成後そして日本人民の自由なる意志に従って、平和的傾向を帯びかつ責任ある政府が樹立されるに置いては、直ちに日本より撤退するものとする。
(13) われわれは日本政府に対し日本軍隊の無条件降伏の宣言を要求し、かつそのような行動が誠意を持ってなされる適切かつ十二分な保証を提出するように要求する。もししからざれば日本は即座にかつ徹底して撃滅される。

東郷外相は この宣言が、「日本の無条件降伏」ではなく「日本軍隊の無条件降伏」と表現されていることに注目し、「日本は無条件降伏するわけではない」とした。


4月7日に成立した鈴木内閣の外務大臣東郷茂徳は、未だに日ソ中立条約が有効であったソビエト連邦を仲介とした和平交渉を行おうとした。5月の最高戦争指導会議構成員会合(鈴木首相・阿南陸海軍大臣・米内海軍大臣・東郷外相・梅津陸軍参謀総長・及川海軍軍令部総長の6人)では、ソ連の参戦防止・中立確保のための交渉を行う合意を得た。当初はこれに戦争終結も目的として含まれていたが、阿南惟幾陸軍大臣が「本土を失っていない日本はまだ負けていない」として反対したため、前記の2項目のみを目的とすることになった。木戸からソ連の斡旋による早期戦争終結の提案を受けた昭和天皇はこれに同意し、6月22日の御前会議でソ連に和平斡旋をすみやかにおこなうよう政府首脳に要請した。天皇は7月7日に親書を持った特使を派遣してはどうかと東郷に述べた。東郷は近衛文麿元首相に特使を依頼し、7月12日に近衛は天皇から正式に特使に任命された。外務省からはモスクワの日本大使館を通じて、特使派遣と和平斡旋の依頼をソ連外務省に伝えることとなった。しかし、すでにソビエト連邦は、1945年(昭和20年)2月のヤルタ会談で、ドイツ降伏から3ヶ月以内の対日宣戦で合意しており、日本政府の依頼を受ける気はなかった。ポツダム会談出席を理由に近衛特使の訪ソを断った。5月から6月にかけて、ポルトガルやスイスの陸海軍駐在武官からソ連の対日参戦についての情報が日本に送られたり、モスクワから帰国した陸軍駐在武官補佐官の浅井勇中佐からシベリア鉄道における兵力の極東方面への移動が関東軍総司令部に報告されたりしていたが、これらの情報は軍・外務省の間で共有されなかったり、希望的観測のもとに軽視される結果となった。(この部分は、2012年8月15日放送のNHKスペシャルで初めて明らかになった事実である。もし 日本の指導層がソ連の参戦をこの時点で知っていたら歴史は大きく変わっていただろう。)
@ 皇制の護持だけを要求して、ポツダム宣言を受け入れる。


 天皇の話は30分以上も続き、会議室は要人たちの嗚咽で埋め尽くされた。この言葉が結論となり、同日、スイス、スウェーデンにポツダム宣言を「天皇の大権が変更されない」ことが含まれるとして受諾する旨発信された。これに対し、米国バーンズ国務長官から「天皇および日本政府の権限は連合国最高司令官の制限の下に置かれる(subject to)」と返答がありまたも会議は紛糾した。8月14日 第2回目の聖断が下り、この条件含み日本側が宣言受諾することを同日、連合国側に伝えた。

 戦争に負けるということは、国土は他国に占領され、天皇や戦犯は処刑、政府も軍隊も解体、男は奴隷か処刑、女は奴隷(性奴隷)と日本人は教え込まれれていた。この考えは、戦後の米国統治を知ってしまった現在からみると歪んでいるように見えるが、当時の帝国主義国家が被植民地民族になしてきた歴史を考えると、あながち間違ってはいないと思う。だから 竹やりで本土決戦だという考えも無茶ではあるが。とにかく 日本の国家がなくなるという事態に対して、世界がどのようなプロセスで「終戦」にたどり着いたのかを知ることは戦後に生きる日本人として最大の歴史と捉えてこれを考察していくべきであると考える。
 ヤルタ密約では、それ以前から既に始っていた東西冷戦の駆け引きが顕在化していくことに注目したい。米国の兵隊がこれ以上消耗するのを恐れたルーズベルトは、スターリンへ日本への参戦を促す。日露戦争で奪われた領土を奪い返し、極東に進出したいソ連にとってこれは「渡りに船」だっただろう。この密約、当の中国の了解が取れていない中での約束である。戦後、冷戦が激化する中でアイゼンハワー大統領は、この密約は、ルーズベルトとスターリンの個人的な話だとして、米国の国家的関与を否定している。しかし、きっちり正確に ドイツ降伏の3ヶ月後にソ連は満州になだれ込んできた。日ソ中立条約は、実質的に破られた。ソ連側の宣戦布告では、「日本政府が7月26日の米英中による3国宣言(ポツダム宣言)を拒否したことで、日本が提案していた和平調停の基礎は完全に失われた。」とされた。そして、日本の8月15日のポツダム宣言受諾後も軍を進め、目的の領土の実効支配がすむまで、武装解除命令下の日本軍に対し軍事的な侵略をつづけ、9月2日の宣言調印後までこれを続けた。(一部 占守島の戦いなど 日本軍が優勢に戦った事例もある)米国などの講義により戦闘は、国後 択捉を占拠して9月5日に終わった。このソ連を通して、天皇制維持と米英との和平工作を考えていた日本側の国際情勢の分析能力の低さはあきれるばかりである。ここでも、ソ連参戦の情報を陸海軍はすでに入手しながら、それを活かすことができなかった。日本国家の存亡という事態においても、彼らは自分の組織の利害を優先させたのである。この指向は先の福島原発事故や官僚主義、企業の不祥事など現在の日本においても散見される。
 ポツダム宣言は、7月26日に、通告され、それを日本は拒否(黙殺)したとして8月6日、9日に原爆攻撃をうけ、同じく9日にソ連は参戦をしている。この悪夢のような2週間を振り返ってみる。トルーマンは、ロスアラモスでの原爆実験成功の知らせを聞いた後、7月25日ポツダムから日本への原爆攻撃を指示している。これは、ポツダム宣言の発表前である。すでに日本の外務省の暗号を傍受解読しており、日本がポツダム宣言を無条件で受け入れるつもりはないことを知っていたのだ。軍事的には、日本の敗戦はすでに明らかであり、原爆を投下する軍事的意味がないのにもかかわらずである。原爆開発の科学者たちをはじめアイゼンハワーなど側近の反対を押し切っての原爆投下判断であった。また、あの最高司令官のマッカーサーでさえ原爆投下判断は知らされていない。トルーマンは、多額の税金をつぎ込み開発した原爆の威力を世界に知らしめ、ソ連に参戦されるまえに原爆を投下して、日本を米国の支配下に置きたかったと考えられる。(一部には 黄色人種に対する人種偏見があったのではという意見もある。原爆投下は人体実験だったという意見もある。)ソ連は、上述の領土支配欲にかられ参戦を開始する。日本は、何としても「天皇制の維持」だけは勝ち取りたいと無条件降伏に難色を示す。米ソ東西冷戦のしのぎあいの中で日本は翻弄され、それでも体制維持に固執するという構図である。やはり、ポツダム宣言受諾には、天皇の立憲君主制を超えた超法規的発言が必要だったのだろうか。とにかく ここで戦争を終らせなければ、日本の分割統治を主張していたソ連と米国とのあいだで、「5年早い朝鮮戦争」が日本の国土で行われていた可能性さえあるのではと考えてしまうのはゆきすぎだろうか。日本のポツダム宣言受諾がもう10日早かったら、原爆投下もソ連の参戦も無かった・・・という書き出しで始まったこの文章ではあるが、ここまで書いて、「いやそうとばかりも言えないなあ」と感慨深げになってしまった。

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