2013年09月02日

VJ Day

 August 15 is the anniversary of the end of the Pacific War in Japan. It is the day when the Emperor told people about the Potsdam Declaration acceptance of Japan by broadcast exactly. In addition, Japan introduced the acceptance of the declaration into the allied powers side on August 14 . The official sealing was carried out at a deck of American battleship Missouri in port Tokyo bay on September 2. (VJ DAY)742px-Missouri-flyover.jpg
wikipedia
The end of the war work of Japan was always carried out. If the acceptance of Potsdam Declaration had been early another 10 days, the atom bomb throwing down to Hiroshima and Nagasaki would have been prevented, and, without participation in a war of the Soviet Union, there could not be the issue of Soviet Union detained person. I think that this should save the human life of at least 400,000 people including a citizen. And the issue of Northern Territories which spread out today would be different .The influence of the Soviet Union in the Far East is suppressed than the present and no one know how even the Korean War and the Vietnam War turned out. In the process until the end of the WW II,  the history must be studied assuming the world map having been changed. It is the first thing that Japan accepts defeat formally in history. Since they take national life and death, the decision and the process will be the most important Japanese history. I try to look back on the process here. I want to consider a process until the end of the war through Yalta Conference (Yalta secret agreement) that decided participation in the Pacific war of the Soviet Union, Potsdam Declaration that decided the Japanese terms of capitulation, the end of the war work of the last Japanese side.

Yalta Conference
The Yalta Conference held February 4–11, 1945, was the WWII meeting of the heads of government of the United States, theUnited Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and General Secretary Joseph Stalin, respectively, for the purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization. The conference convened in the Livadia Palace near Yalta, in Crimea.
yalta.jpgwikipedia
Yalta secret agreement
Roosevelt wanted the USSR to enter the Pacific War with the Allies. One Soviet precondition for a declaration of war against Japan was an American recognition of Mongolian independence from China, and a recognition of Soviet interests in the Manchurian railways and Port Arthur; these were agreed without Chinese representation or consent. Stalin agreed that the Soviet Union would enter the Pacific War three months after the defeat of Germany. Delivering a thing, the Chishima Islands which return the Karafuto (Sakhalin) southern part to the Soviet Union to the Soviet Union , Delivering the Kurile Islands to the Soviet Union . This secret agreement does not get the consent of China.President Eisenhower denies the national participation of the United States in this secret agreement after the war.

The Potsdam Declaration
The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender is a statement that called for the Surrender of the Empire of Japan during WWII. On July 26, 1945, United States President Harry S. Truman, United Kingdom Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Chairman of the Nationalist Government of China Chiang Kai-shek issued the document, which outlined the terms of surrender for the Empire of Japan as agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference. This ultimatum stated that, if Japan did not surrender, it would face "prompt and utter destruction" although the document did not make any mention of atomic weapons.
potsdam.jpgwikipedia
1. We-the President of the United States, the President of the National Government of the Republic of China, and the Prime Minister of Great Britain, representing the hundreds of millions of our countrymen, have conferred and agree that Japan shall be given an opportunity to end this war.
2. The prodigious land, sea and air forces of the United States, the British Empire and of China, many times reinforced by their armies and air fleets from the west, are poised to strike the final blows upon Japan. This military power is sustained and inspired by the determination of all the Allied Nations to prosecute the war against Japan until she ceases to resist.
3. The result of the futile and senseless German resistance to the might of the aroused free peoples of the world stands forth in awful clarity as an example to the people of Japan. The might that now converges on Japan is immeasurably greater than that which, when applied to the resisting Nazis, necessarily laid waste to the lands, the industry and the method of life of the whole German people. The full application of our military power, backed by our resolve, will mean the inevitable and complete destruction of the Japanese armed forces and just as inevitably the utter devastation of the Japanese homeland.
4. The time has come for Japan to decide whether she will continue to be controlled by those self-willed militaristic advisers whose unintelligent calculations have brought the Empire of Japan to the threshold of annihilation, or whether she will follow the path of reason.
5. Following are our terms. We will not deviate from them. There are no alternatives. We shall brook no delay.
6. There must be eliminated for all time the authority and influence of those who have deceived and misled the people of Japan into embarking on world conquest, for we insist that a new order of peace, security and justice will be impossible until irresponsible militarism is driven from the world.
7. Until such a new order is established and until there is convincing proof that Japan's war-making power is destroyed, points in Japanese territory to be designated by the Allies shall be occupied to secure the achievement of the basic objectives we are here setting forth.
8. The terms of the Cairo Declaration shall be carried out and Japanese sovereignty shall be limited to the islands of Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, Shikoku and such minor islands as we determine.
9. The Japanese military forces, after being completely disarmed, shall be permitted to return to their homes with the opportunity to lead peaceful and productive lives.
10. We do not intend that the Japanese shall be enslaved as a race or destroyed as a nation, but stern justice shall be meted out to all war criminals, including those who have visited cruelties upon our prisoners. The Japanese Government shall remove all obstacles to the revival and strengthening of democratic tendencies among the Japanese people. Freedom of speech, of religion, and of thought, as well as respect for the fundamental human rights shall be established.
11. Japan shall be permitted to maintain such industries as will sustain her economy and permit the exaction of just reparations in kind, but not those which would enable her to re-arm for war. To this end, access to, as distinguished from control of, raw materials shall be permitted. Eventual Japanese participation in world trade relations shall be permitted.
12. The occupying forces of the Allies shall be withdrawn from Japan as soon as these objectives have been accomplished and there has been established in accordance with the freely expressed will of the Japanese people a peacefully inclined and responsible government.
13. We call upon the government of Japan to proclaim now the unconditional surrender of all Japanese armed forces, and to provide proper and adequate assurances of their good faith in such action. The alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction.
 
Imperial decision
The Supreme Council met at 10:30. Suzuki, who had just come from a meeting with the emperor, said it was impossible to continue the war. Tōgō Shigenori said that they could accept the terms of the Potsdam Declaration but needed a guarantee of the emperor's position. Navy Minister Yonai said that they had to make some diplomatic proposal−they could no longer afford to wait for better circumstances.

0b96d218.jpg
wikipedia

In the middle of the meeting, shortly after 11:00, news arrived that Nagasaki, on the west coast of Kyūshū, had been hit by a second atomic bomb (called "Fat Man" by the United States). By the time the meeting ended, the Big Six had split 3–3. Suzuki, Tōgō, and Admiral Yonai favored Tōgō's one additional condition to Potsdam, while Generals Anami, Umezu, and Admiral Toyoda insisted on three further terms that modified Potsdam: that Japan handle their own disarmament, that Japan deal with any Japanese war criminals, and that there be no occupation of Japan. 
 The full cabinet met on 14:30 on August 9, and spent most of the day debating surrender. As the Big Six had done, the cabinet split, with neither Tōgō's position nor Anami's attracting a majority. The cabinet meeting adjourned at 17:30 with no consensus. A second meeting lasting from 18:00 to 22:00 also ended with no consensus. Following this second meeting, Suzuki and Tōgō met the emperor, and Suzuki proposed an impromptu Imperial conference, which started just before midnight on the night of August 9–10. Suzuki presented Anami's four-condition proposal as the consensus position of the Supreme Council. The cabinet debated, but again no consensus emerged. At around 02:00 (August 10), Suzuki finally addressed Emperor Hirohito, asking him to decide between the two positions. The participants later recollected that the emperor stated:

 I have given serious thought to the situation prevailing at home and abroad and have concluded that continuing the war can only mean destruction for the nation and prolongation of bloodshed and cruelty in the world. I cannot bear to see my innocent people suffer any longer. ...
I was told by those advocating a continuation of hostilities that by June new divisions would be in place in fortified positions [east of Tokyo] ready for the invader when he sought to land. It is now August and the fortifications still have not been completed. ...
There are those who say the key to national survival lies in a decisive battle in the homeland. The experiences of the past, however, show that there has always been a discrepancy between plans and performance. I do not believe that the discrepancy in the case of Kujukuri can be rectified. Since this is also the shape of things, how can we repel the invaders? [He then made some specific reference to the increased destructiveness of the atomic bomb]
It goes without saying that it is unbearable for me to see the brave and loyal fighting men of Japan disarmed. It is equally unbearable that others who have rendered me devoted service should now be punished as instigators of the war. Nevertheless, the time has come to bear the unbearable. ...
I swallow my tears and give my sanction to the proposal to accept the Allied proclamation on the basis outlined by the Foreign Minister.

The talk of the Emperor continued more than 30 minutes, and the meeting room was filled with sobbing of very important people.  It was sent that I accepted it saying that it was included in Switzerland, Sweden that "Imperial power of the Emperor was not changed" to Potsdam Declaration on the same day.  In contrast, there was an answer from American Secretary of State Burns. From the moment of surrender the authority of the Emperor and the Japanese government to rule the state shall be subject to the Supreme Commander of the Allied powers who will take such steps as he deems proper to effectuate the surrender terms. ...The ultimate form of government of Japan shall, in accordance with the Potsdam Declaration, be established by the freely expressed will of the Japanese people. The meeting became complicated again.
Second Imperial decision of the August 14 fell, and the book side conveyed what declaration accepted in the allied powers side on the same day on this condition implication day.

My consideration
It meant next to lose war, the Japanese has been taught.
The country was occupied by the other countries, and the Emperor and the war crime are executed , and the government and the armed forces are broken up, and a man is execution or a slave, a woman is slave (sex slave) .Judging from the present when I have known the postwar rule in the United States, this thought seems to be warped. But I think that it is not necessarily wrong when I think about the history that a then imperialism nation did in the cover colony race. Therefore the thought to be mainland decisive battle in a bamboo spear is absurd. For a situation that a Japanese nation disappears, I think that it arrests you with the history that is greatest as the Japanese who postwar, lives to know what kind of process the world arrived at "the end of the war" by and should consider this.
 By the Yalta Conference, I want to pay attention to tactics of the cold war between the East and the West that has already begun .Roosevelt who was afraid that an American soldier was worn out further pressed Stalin for participation in a war to Japan. Stalin welcomed this suggestion that the Soviet Union takes the territory which robbed of by Russo-Japanese War back, and the Soviet Union can go into the Far East.This secret agreement does not get the consent of China.President Eisenhower denies the national participation of the United States in this secret agreement after the war. The Soviet Union invaded Manchurian exactly three months after surrender in Germany. The Japan and Russia neutrality pact was broken substantially. 
 The declaration of the war said...The demand of the three powers, the United States, Great Britain and China, on July 26 for the unconditional surrender of the Japanese armed forces was rejected by Japan, and thus the proposal of the Japanese Government to the Soviet Union on mediation in the war in the Far East loses all basis....
And the Soviet Union continued military aggression for the Japan forces disarming until they went ahead through the military after the Potsdam Declaration acceptance of August 15 in Japan and finished the effective control of the objective territory and continued this until the declaration sealing on September 2. (the example that fought in superiority includes Japanese military including the fight of Shumshu)
The Soviet Union occupies Kunashiri, Etorofu and ceases fire by protest of the United States on September 5. Through this Soviet Union, the lowness of the ability for grasp of the international situation of the Japan side which regarded the pacification with U.S. and Britain as Emperor system of Japan maintenance is just disgusted.
 While the army and navy already obtained the information of three Soviet Union, Japan was not able to keep it alive. In the situation called the Japanese national life and death, they gave priority to the interest of one's organization. These points appear in Fukushima nuclear plant accident and bureaucratism, current Japan including the disgraceful affair of the company.

Potsdam Declaration is given notice of on July 26, and float by an atom bomb attack on 9th on August 6 saying that Japan performed refusal (MOKUSATU) of it, and is the same; on 9th the Soviet Union to Japan; participate.
I try to look back on two weeks such as this nightmare.After having heard news of the atom bomb experiment success in Los Alamos, Truman orders atom bomb attacks from Potsdam to Japan on July 25. This is before announcement of Potsdam Declaration.
He has already intercepted a code telegraphic message of Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He knew that Japan did not intend to accept an unconditional surrender. The defeat of Japan was already clear militarily, and there was not already the military meaning to make a city attack by an atom bomb. It was an atom bomb throwing down judgment that he pushed the objection of the aide including Eisenhower aside including scientists who developed an atom bomb. In addition, even MacArthur of the Commander in chief is not informed of the atom bomb throwing down judgment. He flew into a rage with news of the atom bomb throwing down.
He show the power of the atom bomb which was spent a large amount of tax and developed to the world, and Truman drops an atom bomb before it is participated in the war by the Soviet Union, and it is thought that he wanted to put Japan under the control of the United States. (there is the opinion that it is said that a part had the racialism for the yellow-skinned races. As for the atom bomb throwing down, there is the opinion that was experiment on a human body;).The Soviet Union starts participation in a war out of greed for territory rule. When Japan wants to gain "only the maintenance of the Emperor system of Japan" somehow or other, Japan show disapproval of an unconditional surrender.

It cannot have "the fight for justice" to think whenever I look back on the history of the war, and "the winner talks about justice". According to words that "the history is written by the winner", Tokyo trial is performed in the one-sided logic of the winner after this, and the execution of the war crime is performed.  And the postwar history education to continue is provided based on this Tokyo trial sense of history today. There are most of causes of the issue of history recognition and the territorial problem between recent Korea and Chinese Russia here. The history recognition of the process following day and that of end of the war is an important contemporary problem with the influence in this sense in the future. The mystery of most seems to be still unexploited for a process until the end of WWU. United States has been the only supar power large country in the world, even which can make war on anyone, anywhere, anytime and any reason. However, I have to say that the winning a war and the justice are different things!


posted by Kogame3 at 05:18| Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | 歴史認識
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